that serious reflection concerning the nature of causation arose – with Aristotle's famous discussion of causation in Book 2 of his Physics. Aristotle, Physics II 9 In Chapter 3, Aristotle presents his theory of four causes (material, effective, formal and and Material reason explains what something consists of (e.g. One of the first documented attempts to present a rigorous theory of causation came from the Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384–322 BC). However, since Aristotle was the first philosopher to give an extensive account of causes, I will start my discussion with his theory. This is misleading in several ways: a. conviction that the only type of causation relevant to the scientific enterprise was the type Aristotle had isolated and described as efficient cause. Aristotle thinks that we understand something when we know its causes. Aristotle's thoughts on causality are a product of his grander musings on the nature of change. Only one of Aristotle’s causes (the “efficient” cause) sounds even remotely like a Humean cause. Aristotle’s doctrine of the four causes is crucial, but easily misunderstood. A good deal of the theoretical work in the theory of causality has been developed by several, well known philosophers. ARISTOTLE: FOUR TYPES OF EXPLANATION The most important passages where Aristotle discussed his theory of ‘causation’ are to be found in his Posterior Analytics, his Physics, and his Metaphysics. Causality is one of the most hotly debated topics in philosophy (contemporary and historical). Aristotle developed a theory of causality commonly referred to as the Consider, for example, the construction of a house. It is natural for us (post-Humeans) to think of causes in terms of cause-and-effect. The result was Aristotle's doctrine of four types (or, perhaps, aspects) of causes – material, formal, efficient, and final. Aristotle's Four Causes Aristotle held that any contingent event (particularly a material event) was explainable in principle. The interventionist account hypothesizes that there is a connection between causation and human intervention: the idea of a causal relation between two events is generated by the reflection of human beings on their own operating. 1. at Stagirus, a Greek colony and seaport on the coast of Thrace. That is, for Aristotle there are no uncaused contingent events in the universe. Page 2 of 11 Aristotle's Psychology The notions of form and matter are themselves, however, developed within the context of a general theory of causation and explanation which appears in one guise or another in all of Aristotle's mature works. According to Aristotle but contrary to most recent approaches, causation and explanation cannot be understood sepa-rately. b. ... period (genetic approach), where the early period follows Plato’s theory of forms and soul, the middle rejects Plato, and the later period (which includes most of his treatises) is more empirically oriented. Much of his work in the Physics and Metaphysics is dedicated to articulating an exhaustive account of causation. 1.1. The material aspect of Richard Taylor summarized the historical development in Edwards’ Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1967): The concepts of material and formal causes are archaic and now have little Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. He produced a scheme of four fundamental (or irreducible) causes which he believed were required to fully understand an object and any change it may… I will argue for the similarity between some aspects of Aristotle’s doctrine of causes and a particular kind of interventionist theory of causality. 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